Saturday, January 29, 2011



54. Some amount of water exists in the form of water vapour in the atmosphere. True or False
55. What is saline? Where is it found?
56. Where is fresh water found?
57. Availability of fresh water is same from place to place. True or False?
58. What is the condition of water availability in summer?
59. All cellular processes take place in a water medium. True or false?
60. Why do all organisms require water? Explain in detail.
61. Why do terrestrial life-forms require fresh water?
62. Learn the importance of activities 14.8 and 14.9.
63.What are the factors decided by the availability of water?
64. Is water responsible for the diversity of life? How?


65. Explain some ways through which water gets polluted.
66. What happens when water is released from dams?
67. What are the effects of water pollution?
68. What is the effect of the addition of undesirable substances to water bodies?
69. What is the effect of the removal of desirable substances from water bodies?
70. What is the effect of a change in temperature?


71. Soil is an important source that decides the diversity of life in an area. True or False?
72. What is soil?
73. How is soil formed?
74. How does the Earth's crust support the life-forms?
75. Is it possible for the life-forms to get minerals from huge rocks?
76. What are the factors or processes that make soil?
77. What is the part played by the Sun in the process of making soil?
78. How does water help the process of making soil?
79. How does wind help the process of making soil?
80. How do living organisms influence the formation of soil?
81. What are the particles that constitute the soil?
82. How is the type of soil decided?
83. How is humus a major factor in deciding the soil structure?
84. What are the factors that decide which plants can thrive on a particular type of soil?
85. What is called the topsoil?
86. The quality of the topsoil is an important factor that decides the ----------- in a particular area.
87. How is the soil structure destoyed by fertilisers and pesticides?
88. What are instrumental in making the rich humus?
89. How does the fertile soil turn barren?
90. What is called soil pollution?
91. What will happen if all the soil gets washed away?
92. ------------ of plants have an important role in preventing soil erosion.
93. How could deforestation affect us? 


1. Life on earth is dependent upon ---------------, ------------- and ----------.


2. The resources on the earth are ------------ , -------------- and ---------------.
3. The outer crust of the earth is called the ------------.
4. Water covers --------------- percent of the Earth's surface.
5. Water is found underground and this is called the ----------------.
6. What is called atmosphere?
7. What is known as the biosphere?
8. What constitute the biotic component of the biosphere?
9. What constitute the abiotic component of the bioshpere?


10. Air is a mixture of many gases. Give some examples.
11. Composition of Earth is a result of life on Earth. True or False?
12. What is the major component of the atmosphere in Venus and Mars?
13. Carbondioxide constitutes upto ------------ percentage of the atmosphere on Venus and Mars.
14. How does oxygen help eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
15. How is carbondioxide produced by the cells?
16. What is combustion?
17. Combustion  includes human actitivities and forest fires. True or False?
18. How is carbondioxide fixed?
19. Why is the percentage of carbondioxide in our atmosphere a mere fraction?


20. Air is a good conductor of heat. True or False?
21. How does the atmosphere control temperature during day and night?
22. Moon is about the same distance from the Sun as the Earth is. True or False?
23. Moon has no atmosphere. True or False?
24. What is the temperature range of the Moon?
25. Sand and water do not heat up at the same rate. Explain with an experiment.


26. What causes the movement of air?
27. What decides the form of this movement?
28. What brings us the welcome rains?
29. How is water vapour formed?
30. How is the atmosphere heated from below?
31. How are convection currents set up in the air?
32. Explain how to understand the nature of convection currents with an activity.
33. Which gets heated faster - air over land or air over water bodies? Why?
34. How is a region of low pressure created?
35. What creates winds?
36. What is the direction of the wind during the day?
37. At night both land and sea start to -------------.
38. Water cools down -------------- than the land.
39. At night, the air above water would be --------------------- than the air above the land.
40. What are the factors that influence the wind?


41. Explain with an experiment some of the factors influencing climate changes.
42. What happens when water bodies are heated during the day?
43. How does the water vapour condense?
44. How do the water droplets fall as rain?
45. What happens when the temperature of air is low?
46. When does precipitation occur?
47. Wind patterns decide the rain patterns. True or false?
48. In India ------------------ and --------------------- bring rains.


49. Name the fossil fuels.
50. Fossil fuels contain small amounts of ------------- and -----------.
51. What gives rise to acid rain?
52. What is smog?
53. What are the diseases caused by air pollution?

Sunday, January 23, 2011



126. How does sleep help to improve sickly conditions?
127. When does the treatment involve medicines?
128. What are the two ways to treat an infectious disease?
129. What could be the treatment to reduce the effects of the disease?
130. Can symptom directed treatment destroy / eradicate the infecting microbe totally?
131. How are microbes killed using medicines? Explain in detail.
132.  How do antibiotics fight diseases?
133. Why is making anti-viral medicines harder than making anti-bacterial medicines?
134. Can HIV infection be kept under control using drugs?


135. Why is prevention better than cure? OR What are the limitations of curing through medicines after the disease occurs?
136. State the two ways of preventing diseases.
137. How can we prevent the diseases that spread through air?
138. How can we prevent the diseases that spread through water?
139. How can we prevent the diseases that spread through  vector-borne infections?
140. If someone suffers from common cough or cold, other children do not always get exposed to the infection. Why?
141. The immune system of our body fights the ---------------.
142. What are immune cells? What are the functions of the immune cells?
143. What are the causes of a bad immune system in our body? How can we make the immune system good?
144. Availability of proper and sufficient food for everyone is an important principle in prevention of diseases. Explain.
145. What are the specific / peculiar ways of preventing infections?
146. Why is small pox found no where in the world now?
147. How did small pox threaten the people hundred years ago?
148. If you get small pox once, there is no chance of suffering from it again. Why?
149. Why was having small pox disease a means of preventing subsequent attacks of the same disease?
150. What is the basis of the principle of immunisation?
151. What are vaccines?
152. Name some diseases that can be controlled by vaccines.
153. What do you know of polio?
154. Write short notes on hepatitis viruses.




66. Name some organisms which cause diseases.
67. Name the diseases caused by viruses.
68. Name the diseases caused by bacteria.
69. Name the diseases caused by fungi.
70. Name the diseases caused by protozoan micorbes.
71. Name the diseases caused by worms.
72. Why is it important to categorise these infectious agents?
73. What are the common features found in viruses and bacteria?
74. What are the common features found in viruses and fungi?
75. What are the common features found in viruses, bacteria and fungi?
76. Drugs will work against all the microbes belonging to the same group. True or False?
77. Same drugs will not work against the microbes belonging to a different group. True or False?
78. How does an antibiotic work against diseases?
79. How are the bacteria attacked / destroyed by the antibiotic?
80. What is the special effect of Penicillin?
81. Will antibiotics work against viruses? Why?
82. When should we take antibiotic for cold?
83. When  don't we need antibiotic for cold?
84. Antibiotic works against ----------------- infection. It does not work against ------------ infection.


85. How do infectious diseases spread?
86. What does the term 'communicated' mean with reference to communicable diseases?
87. How do the microbes spread through air?
88. Give some examples of diseases that spread through air.
89. Why do airborne diseases spread quickly in crowded areas?
90. How do diseases spread through water?
91. Give some examples of diseases that spread through water.
92. If the drinking water is not safe / pure waterborne diseases are likely to spread. True or False?
93. What are the diseases that spread through sexual contact?
94. Sexually transmitted diseases spread by casual physical contact. True or False?
95. Casual physical contacts include ---------------, ---------------- and ----------------.
96. What do you mean by blood-to-blood contact? What is the disease that spreads through blood-to-   blood contact?
97. What are the ways in which AIDS spreads?
98. How do diseases spread through animals?
99. What are intermediaries or vectors?
100. Name the commonest vector.
101. Why do female mosquitoes need highly nutritious food / blood?
102. How does the mosquito transfer diseases?


103. How do the disease causing microbes enter the body and where do they go?
104. Do all microbes go to the same tissue or organ, or do they go to different ones?
105. When the microbes enter from the air via nose they go to the --------------.Give example.
106. If  the microbes enter throug the mouth they stay in the ---------- .Give example.
107. HIV that comes into the body via the sexual organs will spread to ------------------------- all over the body.
108. Malaria causing microbes entering through a mosquito bite will go to the ---------- and then to the ----------------------.
109. What is Japanese encephalitis?
110. What is the common name of Japanese encephalitis?
111. How is brain fever caused?
112. The virus causing Japanese encephalitis enters through ------------------ and affects the ----------.
113. Signs and symptoms of a disease will depend on the ---------------- or ------------ which the microbe targets.
114. If the lungs are the targets the symptoms will be --------------- and ----------------.
115. If the liver is targeted, --------------- will be caused.
116. If the brain is targeted, we observe symptoms like --------------, ----------------- or ---------------.
117. If we know what the target tissue or organ is, we can imagine the symptoms and signs of an infection. True or False?
118. What is inflammation? How is it caused? What are the effects of inflammation?
119. How does HIV infection affect the body? How do these infections kill people?
120. Small cold cannot become pneumonia. True or False?
121. Minor gut infection can produce major diarrhoea with blood loss. True or False?
122. Severity of disease manifestations depend on the number of --------------------- in the body.
123. If the number of microbes is very small the disease manifestation will be -----------------.
124. If the number of microbes is large the disease manifestation will be ----------------.
125. The ---------------------------- is a major factor that determines the number of microbes surviving in the body.