Sunday, October 24, 2010



89. Seasonal changes are more noticeable in the ------------- areas compared to the ---------- parts of the country.
90. What are the main seasons of India?


91. What is the duration of winter?
92. ------------ and ----------- are the coldest months in North India.
93. The temperature ------------- from the south to the north.
94. What is the average temperature of Chennai / eastern coast?
95. What is the average temperature of the northern plains?
96. Days are ------------ and nights are ------------.
97. ------------ is common in the north and --------------- is experienced in the slopes of Himalayas.
98. During winter -------------- winds prevail over the country.
99. The winds blow from the ----------- to the -----------.
100. Why is it dry season  during winter in most parts of the country?
101. What kind of weather prevails in the northern part of the country during winter?
102. Write notes on the cyclonic disturbances in the northern plains.
103. What is 'mahawai'? Why is it important?
104. What kind of weather prevails in the peninsular region during winter?


105. What is the duration of the summer season in India?
106. What is the highest temperature in March and where is it recorded?
107. What iste temperature in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh in April?
108. In summer the temperature of ------------is common in the northwestern parts.
109. In peninsulat India the temperature remains -------------.
110. The summer months experience ---------------- temperature and ---------------air pressure in the north.
111. Where does a low pressure develop during the end of May?
112. Give an account on 'loo'.
113. When do the dust stroms blow and how do they affect the climate during this season?
114. Give an account of : 'Kaal Baisakhi'.
115. What are 'mango showers' and where are they seen?


116. Write notes on the trade winds ..the changes they bring during the rainy season.
117. How does the south-west monsoon bring a total change in the weather?
118. Due to this monsoon, the Western Ghats receive very high rainfall  more than ----------- cm.
119. The maximum rainfall of this season is experienced in -------------- part of the country.
120. ------------ in the southern ranges of the Khasi Hills receives the highest average rainfall in the world.
121. What are 'breaks' in rainfall?
122. Monsoon is uncertain. True or False? Why?


123. The duration of transiton is during the months of ---------------------------.
124. Describe the retreat of the monsoon during the transition period.
125. What is known as 'October heat'?
126. Give an account of the occurence and the movement of the cyclones during the transition period.


127. Rainfall is not equally distributed in the country. Explain with examples.


128. What are the factors responsible for a rhythmic cycle of seasons?
129. Monsoon decides the life of plants, man and animals in India. How?

Saturday, October 23, 2010



51. What are the atmospheric conditions that govern India's weather and climate  condtions?
52. India lies in the region of ------------------winds.
53. How do the north easterly winds decide the atmospheric condition of India?
54. what is Coriolis force?
55. What is the condition of pressure and wind during winter?
56. What are known a the Southwest monsoons?
57. Which monsoon brings wide rainfall over India?
58. What is the jet stream?
59. What do you know about subtropical westerly jet streams?
60. Jet streams blow south of the Himalayas -------------- except in ----------------.
61. What do you know about subtropical easterly jet streams?
62. Write notes on: Western Cyclonic disturbances.


63. The climate of India is strongly influenced by monsoon winds. True or False?
64. Who were the sailors who were benefited by the monsoons? How were they benefited?
65. The monsoons are experienced in the tropical area roughly between ------------- and ------------.
66. What are the five facts that are important to understand the mechanism of the monsoons?
67. Write notes on the differential heating and cooling of land and water.
68. Give notes on the shift of the postition of Inter Tropical Convergence Zone. (ITCZ)
69. What is monsoon trough?
70. What do you know of the preesence of the high-pressure area, east of Madagascar?
71. What is the result of the intense heat of Tibetan plateau in summer?
72. What are the jet streams that change the monsoon mechanism?
73. Write short notes on ITCZ.
74. How do the pressure conditions over the zouthern oceans affect the monsoons?
75. What is known as the Southern Oscillation or  SO?
76. Describe the El Nino movement.
77. What is ENSO?


78. The monsoon winds are ------------ in nature.
79. When and what is the duration of monsoon?
80. What is known as the burst of the monsoon?
81. When does the monsoon arrive at the southern tip of India?
82. What are the two branches of the mopnsoon?
83. Write notes on the Arabian Sea branch.
84. Write notes on the Bay of Bengal branch.
85. Where does the Arabian Sea branch monsoon arrive during by mid-June?
86. Where do the two branches merge?
87. What are the areas that receive rainfall through the Bay of Bengal branch?
88. Give a  detailed description of the withdrawal of monsoons.

Friday, October 22, 2010



1. What is climate?
2. What is weather?
3. What are the elements of weather and climate?
4. The elements of weather and climate are same / different...Choose the correct answer.
5. On what basis is the year divided into different seasons?
6. The word monsoon is derived from the Arabic word ------------------.
7. What is monsoon?
8. The climatic condition of India is described as ---------------- type.
9. In Asia monsoon type of climate is found in -------------- and ----------------------- parts.
10. What are the main elements that cause regional variation in climatic conditions within a country?
11. In summer temperature of Rajasthan is ----------------; at the same time the temperature of Jammu and Kashmir is -------------- and that of Thiruvananthapuram is --------------.
12. In the Thar desert the temperature may be -------------- during day time; the same day it might get reduced to ------------------.
13. During day and night there is hardly any difference of temperature in Kerala, Andaman and Nicobar islands. True or False?
14. What is the nature of precipitation in the upper part of Himalayas, when it rains all over the country?
15. What is the annual precipitation in Meghalaya?
16. What is the annuala precipitation in Ladakh and western Rajasthan.
17. India receives rainfall normally from ------------- to ---------------.
18. In tamil Nadu some coastal areas get rain from --------------- to -------------------.
19. Coastal areas experience less contrasts in temperature conditions. True or False?
20. Seasonal contrasts are more in the interior parts of the country compared to the coastal areas. True or False?
21. What is the difference in seasonal contrasts between the coastal areas of and the interior parts of India?
22. How has the climate variations changed the life style of the people?
23. What is the difference in the nature of the houses in Rajasthan and Tarai region in Goa and Mangalore?
24. Describe the nature of houses built in Assam.


25. What are the six major controls of the climate of any place?
26. Give an account of the latitudes.
27. Why does the temperature generally decrease from the equator towards the poles?
28. Give an account of the altitudes.
29. Why are the hills cooler during summer?
30. What do you know of pressure and wind system?
31. How can the pressure and wind system influence the temperature and rainfall pattern?
32. How does the sea exert a moderating influence on the climate?
33. Explain : the distance from the sea as a major control of the climate.
34. What is continentality?
35. Describe ocean currents as a major factor of the climate.
36. Why are most of the world's deserts located in the western margins of continents in the subtropics?
37. Describe relief as a major factor of the climate.
38. What are the barriers for hot and cold winds?
39. How do high mountains cause precipitation?
40. The leeward side of the mountains remain ------------------.



41. The Tropic of Cancer passes through the ------------- of the country from the --------------- in the west to --------------------- in the east.
42. Half of the country lying south of Tropic of Cancer is --------------- area.
43. Remaining area lying north of Tropic of Cancer is --------------- area.
44. India's climate has characteristics of both -------------- and --------------- climates.
45. Why does India have the characteristics of both tropical and subtropical climates?


46. India has mountains to the north which have an average height of -----------------.
47. India's has a ------------ coastal area.
48. The elevation of the coastal area is about ---------------.
49. --------------- prevents the cold winds from Central Asia from entering the subcontinent.
50. Why does India (subcontinent) experience mild winters than Central Asia?

Sunday, October 17, 2010



86. Animalia are --------------, -------------------- and ------------------.
87. Their cells have cell walls. True or False?


88. Porifera means ------------------.
89.  Porifera are --------------- animals attached to some solid support.
90. How are the 'pores' used?
91. The hard outside layer covering these animals is called -------------.
92. What are sponges? In what species are they found commonly?
93. Give examples of Porifera.


94. They live in -------------.
95. There is a cavity in their body. True or False?
96. What is the nature of the two layer of cells found in them?
97. Give common examples of Coelenterata.
98. Give examples of Coelenterata that have a solitary life.Give example of Coelenterata that live in colonies.


99. The body of these animals is --------------designed.
100. What do you mean by bilaterally symmetrical? Give example for such animals.
101. Why are these animals called triploblastic?
102. There is no internal boday cavity or coelem. True or False?
103. The body is flattened --------------------, meaning from --------- to --------------.
104. Why are they called flatworms?
105. Give examples of free living animals.
106. Give examples of parasites.


107. They  are also bilaterally symmetrical and triploblastic. True or False?
108. What is the shape of their body?
109. What is pseudocoelem?
110. What are the diseases caused by them?
111. Elephantiasis is caused by ---------------.
112. What are the worms in the intestines?


a. They are bilaterally symmetrical and triploblastic. True or False?
b. What type of coelem  they have?
c. What is the use of this type of coelem ?
d. Are these animals segmented?
e. How are they segmented?
f. Where do these animals live?
g. Give examples of Annelida.


113. This is the largest group of animals. True or False?
114. They are bilaterally symmetrical and segmented. True or False?
115. The circulatory system is --------------- and so the blood -------------------- in well defined blood vessels.
116. The coelomic cavity is -------------.
117. What do you mean by 'arthropod'?
118. Give examples of these animals.


119. There is bilateral symmetry. True or False?
120. The coelomic cavity is -------------- and there is ---------- segmentation.
121. They have an ---------------------- circulatory system and --------------- organs for excretion.
122. How do they move around?
123. Give examples.


124. What is the meaning of 'echinos'?
125. What is the meaning of derma?
126. Why are they called echinodermata?
127. They are free living marine animals. True or False?
128. Are they triploblastic?
129. What kind of cavity do they have?
130. How do they move around?
131. What do they use as a skeleton?
132. Give examples.


133. They are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic and have a coelom. True or False?
134. What is the additional new feature of body design?
135. What is a notochord?
136. What is the use of a notochord?
137. What is a chord?
138. The notochord is present throughout all stages of life. True of False?
139. They are land  / marine animals.
140. Give examples.


141. Why are the animals of this phylum called vertebrata?
142. How do they move?
143. Give the special features possessed by these animals.
144. They are grouped into ------------ classes.
145. The five classes of the vertebrata are -------------, -------------, --------------, --------- and -------------.


146. They are exclusively -------------- animals.
147. Their skin is covered with -----------------.
148. How do they obtain oxygen?
149. How do they move?
150. They are warm-blooded / cold-blooded.
151. Their hearts have -------------.
152. Do they lay eggs?
153. What is the difference between a human heart and a the heart of a fish?
154. Describe the different types of skeletons found in Pisces with suitable examples.


155. How are the amphibians different from the Pisces?
156. How do they respire?
157. Do they lay eggs?
158. Where do they live?
159. Give examples.


160. They are warm-blooded / cold-blooded.
161. Do they have scales?
162. How do they breathe?
163. How many chambers are there in their heart? How is crocodile's heart different?
164. What is the difference between their eggs and that of the amphibians.
165. Give examples.


166. These are warm-blooded / cold-blooded animals.
167. How many chambers are there in the heart?
168. Do they lay eggs?
169. What are the features that help in their flight?
170. How do they breathe?
171. Give examples.


172. They are warm-blooded / cold-blooded.
173. How many chambers are there in their heart?
174. How do they nourish their youngones?
175. Do all the mammals  lay eggs?
176. Give examples of mammals that lay eggs.
177. Mammals like the ------------- give birth to poorly developed youngones.
178. Give examples.


179. Why is there a need for systematic naming of living organisms?
180. Why is the scientific name of an organism unique?
181. The scientific name of an organism is universal...True or False?
182. What is nomenclature?
183. Who introduced nomenclature?
184. When we name an organism, we do not list the ---------------, but we write the name of the -------- and the -------------- of that particular organism.
185. The name of the genus and species belong to ------------- language.
186. What are the conventions to be followed while writing scientific names.



1. What are 'life processes'?


2. What is work?


3. What are the conditions that need to be satisfied for work to be done?
4. If one of the two conditions does not exist, then work ---------------------.


5. Work done = -----------------------------------------------
6. W = -------------
7. Work has only ----------------- and no ------------.
8. Unit of work is -------------- or -------------.
9. Work done is ------------------ when the force acts opposite to the direction of displacement.
10. Work done is ---------------- when the force is in the direction of displacement.
11. Define 1J of work.
12. Explain some situations in which force and the displacement are in the same direction.
13. Explain some situations in which force and displacement are in the opposite direction.


14. ----------------- is the biggest natural source of energy to us.
15. We can also get energy from other natural resources like --------------, --------------- and ---------------------.
16. What is energy?
17. An object capable of doing work is said to possess -----------------.
18. The object which does the work ------------------ energy.
19. The object on which the work is done --------------- energy.
20. How does an object with energy do work?
21. Unit of energy is ---------------.
22. Why is the unit of energy same as the unit of work?
23. What is name of the larger unit of energy?
24.  1 kJ = ----------------.


25. What are the different types of energy?


26. Define kinetic energy.
27. Derive the expression for kinetic energy of an object.


28. Define potential energy.


29. What is the gravitational potential energy?
30. Derive the expression for the gravitational potential energy.


32. Define the law of conservation of energy.
33. kinetic energy + potential energy = -----------------.
34. Explain the transformation of energy from one form to another form with a suitable example.
35. Explain the law of conservation of energy with an example.


36. Life is impossible without transformation of energy. Do you agree? Why?
37. What is Power?
38. Power = --------------------.
39. P = ---------------.
40. Unit of power is -------------.
41. What is watt?
42. 1 watt = ------------------------: 1 W = -------------------.
43. 1 kilowatt = ------------------
44. 1kW = ---------------.
45. 1kW = ------------------.
 46. Why is the concept of average power useful?
47. Average power = ----------------------.


48. An object of mass m moving with velocity v has a kinetic energy of --------------.
49. The energy used in one hour at the rate of 1KW is called ----------------.



64. What happens during election campaigns?
65. Election campaigns take place for a period of --------------------- in India between the ----------------- and -----------------.
66. Election campaign is not limited to two weeks only. True of False?
67. List out some of the successful slogans given by different political parties in various elections.
68. Why is it necessary to regulate campaigns?
69. What are the regulations put up by the Indian government regarding campaigns?
70. Explain the features of the Model Code of Conduct.


71. What is called the election day?
72. What is a polling booth?
73. Why is a black mark put on the voter's finger?
74. What is the duty of the candidate's agent?
75. What is a ballot paper?
76. Write a note on the Electronic Voting Machines. (EVM) and how counting is done once the election is over.
77. Who is declared elected?
78. How is the news of victory made known to the people?


79. What do the newspapers and television report regarding unfair practices in the election?
80. A party takes power through popular support or it easy to explain? Why?


81. What is Election Commission?(EC)
82. Who heads the EC?
83. The Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) is appointed by -----------------------.
84. CEC, however is not answerable to the -------------- or the ------------------.
85. What are the powers of EC of india?
86. Why doesn't the ruling party always like the EC?
87. Why is it necessary that the EC should be independent and powerful?
88. How is the people's participation in election usually measured?
89. In India ----------------, -------------- and --------------- people vote in larger population compared to the rich and the privileged sections.
90. Why do common people in India attach a lot of importance to elections?
91. In India, the interest of voters in election has been ------------------- over the years.
92. One out of --------------------------------- is a member of a political party.


93. Whom does the election outcome favour?
94. What do you mean by 'buying votes'?
95. What do you mean by 'incumbent' or 'sitting' candidates?
96. Who wins the elections...Ruling party or the opposition?
97. What do you mean by 'people's verdict'?


98. Elections in India are basically free and fair. True or False?
99. Explain the challenges or limitations of Indian election.



1. Booth capturing
2. Level Playing Field
3. Rigging
4. Turnout

Saturday, October 16, 2010


1. Write a note on the assembly election in Haryana during 1987.
2. What do you know about 'Nyaya Yudh'?
3. Who led the Nyaya Yudh movement?
4. What were the promises given by Devi Lal during his election campaign?
5. What was the result of the election?
6. What role did his campaign play on impressing the people?
7. Answer the questions....right / wrong..given in page 57.
8. Who always invites the new chief minister to form the government once an election is over?
9. What were the promises fulfilled by Devi Lal after he won the election?
10. What was the result of election in 1991?


11. More than ------------------- countries in the world hold elections to select their representatives.
12. Elections are held in many countries that are not democratic. True or False?
13. What is the role of elections in a democracy?
14. Why is it difficult to make decisions in a democratic country by common people?
15. In democratic countries people rule through their --------------------- .
16. Can you choose leaders based on age and experience alone avoiding elections? Why?
17. List out the problems / confusions caused if election is not held in a democratic country.
18. What are the choices made by the voters in an election?


19. Describe the minimum conditions of a democratic election.
20. Are these conditions fulfilled by all countries?


21. Elections are all about political ---------------- .
22. Elaborate the merits and demerits of the electoral competition.
23. What is 'factionalism'?
24. What do you know of 'party politics'?
25. What dirty tricks are used by the candidates and the parties to win elections?
26. Political competition is not needed in an ------------- world. But in this real world it is needed.
27. Who decides the reward or punishment of the elected leaders?
28. How can the elected leaders win the confidence of the people?
29. The leaders cannot win again if ---------------------------.


30. Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha elections are held regularly after every ---------------------.
31. When does the Lok Sabha or Vidhan Sabha stand 'dissolved'?
32. What is called a general election? What is called a by-election?


33.What are electoral constituencies?
34. For Lok Sabha elections, the country is divided into -------------- constituencies.
35. Who is called a Member of Parliament or an MP?
36. Every vote should have -------------- value.
37. What are Assembly Constituencies?
38. The elected representative for a State Assembly Consituency is called --------------------- or ------------------------.
39. What are wards?
40. What are seats?


41. How are the weaker sections of society given a chance to participate in election?
42. What do you know of reservation of constituencies?
43. For whom are the constituencies reserved?
44. Who are SC? ST?
45. In the Lok Sabha ------------------- seats are reserved for the Scheduled Castes and ---------------for the Scheduled Tribes.
46. Who are OBC?
47. What do you know of the reservation for the women candidates?


48. What is called the Electoral Roll?
49. What is the principle of universal adult franchise?
50. In India all citizens above the age of ------------ can vote.
51. Every citizen has the right to vote irrespective of -------------, -------------- or -------------.
52. Who can be denied vote?
53. Why are names included and discarded in the voters' list?
54. What is the system of Election Photo Identity Card EPIC?
55. Is it compusory to provide EPIC while voting? What are other identity proofs that can be shown by a voter?


56. What is the minimum age to be a candidate?
57. What are the restrictions regarding nomination?
58. Whom do the political parties nominate as their candidates?
59. What is called party ticket?
60. What is a nomination form?
61. What is security deposit ?
62. What are the aspects of the recent declaration demanded by the Supreme Court from the candidates?
63. How does the declaration of the candidate help the people to elect?


64. What is the relevant qualification of an MP or MLA more than education?
65. Why can't / need not we consider educational qualification as an important factor for the candidates nominated for election?

Sunday, October 10, 2010


32.      Define density.
33.      The density of cork is ------------ than the density of waqter.
34.      The upthrust of water on the cork is ------------------ than the weight of the cork.
35.      The density of an iron nail is ------------- than the density of water.
36.      The upthrust of water on the iron nail is ------------- than the weight of the nail.
37.      Why does an iron nail sink in water?
38.      Objects of density less than that of water -----------------  the liquid.
39.      Objects of density greater than that of water -------------- the liquid.
40.      (Stone string experiment) The elongation produced in the string or the spring balance is due to the --------------------------------.
41.  When the stone is immersed in water, some force acts on the stone in an ------------------ direction.
42.  What is known as the force of buoyancy?
43.  Define Archimedes’ Principle.
44.  Mention the fields / applications where Archimedes’ Principle is used.
45.  What is the unit of density?
46.  The density of a given substance under specified conditions -------------------------.
47.  Density is -------------------- for different substances.
48.  What is the density of gold?
49.  What is the density of water?
50.  The density of a given sample of a substance can help us to determine its -------------------
51.  .Relative density = ------------------------------- .
52.  It is convenient to express density of a substance in comparison with that of -----------------.



67.  How did the forest laws affect the hunters?
68.  How did hunting turn out to be a sport?
69.  What do you know about hunting as a sport in India?
70.  Why did various species become extinct under colonial rule?
71.  What was the belief of the British regarding large animals?
72.  Why did the British announce a reward for killing large animals?
73.  Over -------------------- tigers, ----------------------- leopards and ---------------- wolves were killed for reward in the period 1875-1925.
74.  How did the tiger become a sporting trophy?
75.  The Maharaja of Sarguja killed --------------------------tigers and ------------------- leopards.
76.  George Yule, a British administrator killed ------------------ tigers.
77.  ------------------------ and ---------------------- argued that animals should be protected, not killed.

78.  How did the forests become a source of trade?
79.  There was a growing demand for ---------------------- in the mid-nineteenth century.
80.  ---------------------- and --------------------- were the villagers who were involved in rubber trading.
81.  Give short notes on trading of forest products by adivasis and Banjaras during the medieval India.
82.  How did the British take an upper hand in forest trading suppressing the trading by Indians?
83.  Who are ‘criminal tribes’? Name them. How did they suffer under British?
84.  Who were recruited for tea plantation in Assam?
85.  What were the hardships faced by these employees who were recruited for tea plantation?

86.  What caused the forest rebellions?
87.  Name the leaders of the forest rebellion.

88.  Where is Bastar located?
89.  The central part of  Bastar is on a --------------------.
90.  To the north of Bastar is --------------------- and to the south of Bastar is -------------------.
91.  Name the communities of Bastar.
92.  Bastar communities speak -------------------- languages; share common ------------------ and ---------------.
93.  What do they do at each agricultural festival?
94.  Name the gifts of nature that are respected by the Bastars. Why did they respect them?
95.  What do you know of - dersari, dand,man?
96.  Why did the Bastars engage watchmen? How did they pay the watchmen?
97.  What is pargana?
98.  What were the issues discussed by  the pargana ?

99.  In 1905, what caused the major worry of the Bastars?
100. What are ‘ forest villages’?
101. How were the people in other villages affected ?
102. Terrible famines in ---------------------- and again in ------------------ worsened the living condition of people in forests.
103. Where did the people discuss their problems and with whom?
104. Where did reservation took place first?
105. ---------------------- from the village ------------------ was an important person in the forest movement.
106. How did the villagers pass message to invite others for the forest rebellion?
107. How did the villages contribute to the rebellion expenses?
108. In what ways were the rebelling people affected?
109. --------------- was a missionary who observed the events of the forest rebellion and recorded them.
110. What important note did he record?
111. How did the British try to suppress the rebellion?
112. The -------------- tried to negotiate with the British.
113. What happened to the adivasis when they tried to negotiate?
114. Why were the villages deserted during the rebellion?
115. It took ---------------- months for the British to regain control after the rebellion.
116. The British failed to capture the leader ------------------.
117. What are the consequences of Bastar rebellion?
118.  ____________ gained victory in the forest rebellion.
119.  Explain the story of forests and people of Bastar after independence.
120.  What was the proposal of the World Bank in 1970?
121.  Why and how was the paper industry proposal stopped?

122.  ----------------- is famous rice-producing island in Indonesia.
123.  In the beginning Java was covered mostly with -----------------.
124.  The colonial power in Indonesia were ------------------.
125.  There were many similarities in the laws of forest control in Indonesia and India. True or False?
126.   ----------------- is where the Dutch started forest management.
127.   Like the British, the Dutch wanted ---------------------- from Java to build --------------.
128.   During 1600, many villages of Java were located in ------------------- but there were also communities living in the ------------------ and practicing shifting cultivation.

129. Who were Kalangs? What was their major occupation?
130. Why and how were the Kalangs divided ?
131. How did the Kalangs help the kings?
132. The Dutch began to regain control over the forests in the ------------- century.
133. The Dutch tried to make the ------------------ work under them.
134. In the year ---------------, the Kalangs tried to attack the Dutch fort at -----------------, but the uprising was ----------------.

135. What were the provisions of Forest law proposed by the Dutch?
136. Wood could be cut only for specific purposes like ---------------- and -------------; wood could be cut only from -----------------------------------.
137. On what offences were the villagers punished?
138. As in India, the need to manage forests for ------------------------- and ------------------- led to the --------------------.
139. In 1882, ---------------- sleepers were exported from Java.
140. What was blangdongdiensten system?

141. Write short notes on Samin’s challenge.
142. Around ------------, Surontiko Samin of -------------------- village, began questioning ---------------------------------.
143. Randublatung village is a ------------------- village.
144. Those who helped Samin in organizing the forest movement were his -----------------.
145.  By 1907, ------------------- families followed Samin’s ideas.
146.  How did the Saminists protest against the Dutch?

147. What were the major  impacts of the First and Second World War on forests?
148. During these wars, in India-------------------- were abandoned and  trees were cut to meet the ---------------------------.
149. Define: ‘ a scorched earth’ policy.
150. How did the Dutch try to avoid being trapped by the Japanese?
151. How and why did the Japanese exploit the forests?
152. What was the major conflict between the agriculturists and the Forest department?

153. What is an important goal rather than collecting timber?
154. Who must be involved to achieve this goal?
155. From ---------------------- to ---------------------- dense forests have survived only because villages protected them in -----------------------.
156. The sacred groves known as ---------, ----------------, ------------- and ---------- protected the dense forests.
157. How did the villagers guard the forest ?
158. The villagers did not leave the responsibility of guarding to the --------------------.

Saturday, October 2, 2010


1.      The idea of divisibility of matter was considered in India during -----------------.
2.      Who was Maharishi Kanad? What was his theory?
3.      What is padarth?
4.      What is Parmanu?
5.      How did Pakudha Katyayama elaborate the theory of divisibility?
6.      Define the divisibility theory proposed by Democritus and Leucippus.
7.      Name the two laws of chemical combination established by Antoine L. Lavoisier.
8.      Who formulated the two laws of chemical combination?
9.      Explain law of conservation of mass with an experiment.
10.  Define law of conservation of mass.
11.  Define law of constant proportions.
12.  In water, the ratio of mass of hydrogen to the mass of oxygen is always --------------.
13.  If 9 g of water is decomposed ------------------- of hydrogen and --------------- of oxygen are always obtained.
14.  In ammonia, nitrogen and hydrogen are always present in the ratio ----------------.
15.  The law of constant proportions is also known as ------------------------.
16.  Define Proust’s theory of law of constant proportions.
17.  How did Dalton formulate his theory to answer the initial questions regarding law of constant proportions?
18.  What are atoms?
19.  Where does the name ‘atom’ derived from?
20.  Dalton’s theory of atoms was based on the law of ---------------------.
21.  Dalton’s atomic theory provided an explanation for the law of -------------------- and the law of -------------------------.
22.  Describe the postulates of Dalton’s atomic theory.
23.  All matter is made of tiny particles called -----------------.
24.  Atoms are ------------------ particles. They cannot be ---------------- or ----------------- in a chemical reaction.
25.  Atoms of a given element are -------------------- in mass and chemical properties.
26.  Atoms of different elements have ---------------------- masses and chemical properties.
27.  Atoms combine in the ratio of ----------------- to form ------------------.
28.  The -------------------- and ---------- are constant in a given compound.
29.  Which postulate of Dalton’s atomic theory is the result of the law of conservation of mass?
30.  Which postulate of Dalton’s theory can explain the law of definite proportions?
31.  Atomic radius is measured in -------------------.
32.  1m = --------------- nanometer / nm.
33.  ---------------- was the first scientist to use the symbols for elements in a specific sense.
34.  Berzilius suggested that the symbols of elements be made from -------------------------- of the name of the elements.
35.  In the beginning the names of elements were derived from the ------------------------- and --------------------------------.
36.  In the beginning the name of copper was derived from the word ---------------.
37.  What was the confusion that arose while elements were given names from the places where they were first found and their colours?
38.  Expand IUPAC.
39.  Which organization approves the names of elements nowadays?
40.  The first letter of a symbol is always written in ---------------------- and the second letter in ---------------------------.
41.  Explain how symbols are formed by IUPAC.
42.  Learn the symbols of all important elements.